I. ESSAY ON THE CREED, CUSTOMS AND LITERATURE OF
1. (Published in the "Madras Journal of Literature and sci-
ence" January, 1840 Madras)
Jangams, who totally reject the Brahmins, class themselves
as (1) SAMANYA JANGAMS and (2) VISESHA JANGAMS.
(1) The Samanya OR ordinary Jangam is bound by no vow.
He OR she can eat fish and drink wine. They use betel nut, and
can eat in any one's house only they are obliged to marry in their
own caste. The ARADHYA Brahmins are found to attend funer-
als, even those of PARIAS. The Jangams even PARIAS cannot
eat with them even at the funeral dinner.
(2) The higher grade opposed to this is the
VISESHAJANGAM OR extraordinary Jangam; being the GURU
OR Teacher, commonly called MATADHIPATI OR spiritual guide.
AH the rest are his disciples. He or she acquires his rank by taking
a vow, the greater vow. Any man OR woman who is moral and
devout is admissible to this rank which entirely releases them
from caste.The VISESHA JANGAMS are GURUS and the visesha
Bhaktas are disciples. VISESHA JANGAMS are also called
This mystic phrase is thus expounded. The IMAGE
(Sivalingam) is the deity. The Jangam is the wearer or fellow wor-
shipper and he who breathes the spell in the ear is the GURU.
Thus he supplies the link between the GOD and the worshipper
and after he is looked upon with affection as the parent, even more
respected than father, the Jangam, says that I am one with the
diety, and he alone is my father who conferred this unity on me."
ON LOSS OF CASTE